Confirmed. User presses STOP button. This sends a RST packet and closes the connection. PHP is most certainly immediately affected (i.e., the script is stopped, whether or not any output is pending for the user, or even if script is just grinding away on a database without having output anything).
ignore_user_abort() exists to prevent this.
If user STOPS, script ignores the RST and runs to completion (the output is apparently ignored by apache and not sent to the user, who sent the RST and closed the TCP connection). If user's connection just vanishes (isp problem, disconnect, whatever), and there is no RST sent by user, then eventually the script will timeout.